Collected en masse, but often without depth Often does not allow individual contributions that were not foreseen Answers are often forced into discrete categories, e. Often collected by questionnaires, surveys. IT1 U1O1KKsources of, and methods and techniques for, acquiring and referencing primary data and information Interviews Can be time-consuming to conduct and interpret data Can be responsive to answers that are given.
It aims at improving the general manufacturing process with a view to improving productivity. It is also concerned with formulating proper work procedures so that materials will flow uninterrupted.
It lays emphasis on scientific methods of doing things rather than the use of personal intuition, experience, practice and guess work. He was described as the Father of Scientific Management. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts and started work as an apprentice in engineering.
He spent most of his time working and achieving greater efficiency at the shop-floor. His solutions to problems of efficiency were from his own practical experiences. He rose through the ranks to become a Manager in the Midvale Steel Co.
He also worked with Simonds Rolling Machine Co. It was at Bethlehem that he conducted experiment on how to improve labour productivity. He consolidated his ideas into a book Lecture notes cost management The Principles of Scientific Management .
Taylor contributed to the study of management in the following areas: According to Taylor, the success of the above principles required a complete mental revolution on the part of management and labour. This required substituting facts or scientific method for intuition, opinion and guesswork.
Taylor was concerned with finding the one best way to perform a task. His basic philosophy of work was based on motivation. He believed that prosperity of both the employer and the worker could only be achieved through maximizing productivity.
Taylor suggested that organisations would be more efficient if their knowledge, experience and practices were analysed and the best methods established by management. Managers now apply the principles of division of labour and specialization. Managers now design an organizational structure, recruit workers and fit them into the organization with well—defined roles and responsibilities.
Managers at the shop—floor of manufacturing concerns now appreciate correct sequence of manufacturing operations through appropriate plant layout- product, process, fixed position etc. Using time study as a base, he broke each job down into its components and designed the quickest and best methods of doing each component of the job[task] the conclusion was that, he was able to allot the optimum time for performing a task given the equipment and material on hand.
He also recommended appropriate compensation for more productive workers in relation to others based on a scientifically correct rate that would benefit both the worker and the organization. The Gilbreths [husband and wife team] The Gilbreths are credited with motion study even though Taylor mentioned it in his work.
Motion study [movement on task] is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. It is regarded as the cornerstone of scientific management. In consultation with their senior colleague, Taylor, the Gilbreths were able to reduce the number of movements in laying bricks from 18 movements per brick to 5 movements per brick.
In this way, individual output increased from to bricks laid per hour. The Gilbreths were concerned with the application of measurement to management and abiding by the results. They were also concerned with finding the one best scientific way of doing things. As employers, they did their best to practice what they preached.
They laid down systematic and scientific rules and procedures for doing work and insisted on strict adherence to them.
In this way, workers had no or little discretion. In reciprocity, workers were paid fair above competitive rates. The work of Gilbreths established the foundation for later advances in the areas of job simplification, work standards, and incentive wage plans. According to the Gilbreths, motion and fatigue are intertwined, i.
Gantt  Gantt was another disciple of Taylor after the Gilbreths in the field of scientific management. He worked with Taylor on several scientific projects at Midvale and Bethlehem. He later went out on his own as a consulting industrial engineer.Knowledge Matters is a leading publisher of software-based simulations for education.
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