What its founders, Fritz and Laura Perls and Paul Goodman, did was to weave a new synthesis out of existing concepts. The background of this new Gestalt is composed of concepts and elements from different bodies of knowledge and disciplines. I would like to give you an idea of the cultural and historical situation that is the Zeitgeist the spirit of the time that prevailed during the lifetimes of the founders of Gestalt therapy. What kind of theories and traditions did Fritz and Laura come into contact with?
Nel Noddings In a democratic society, schools must go beyond teaching fundamental skills. Public schools in the United States today are under enormous pressure to show—through improved test scores—that they are providing every student with a thorough and efficient education.
The stated intention of No Child Left Behind NCLB is to accomplish this goal and reverse years of failure to educate many of our inner-city and minority children.
But even if we accept that the motives behind NCLB are benign, the law seems fatally flawed. Some critics have declared NCLB an unfunded mandate because it makes costly demands without providing the resources to meet them.
Others point to its bureaucratic complexity; its unattainable main goal percent of students proficient in reading and math by ; its motivationally undesirable methods threats, punishments, and pernicious comparisons ; its overdependence on standardized tests; its demoralizing effects; and its corrupting influences on administrators, teachers, and students.
All these criticisms are important, but NCLB has a more fundamental problem: What are the proper aims of education? How do public schools serve a democratic society? What does it mean to educate the whole child? The Aims of Education Every flourishing society has debated the aims of education.
This debate cannot produce final answers, good for all times and all places, because the aims of education are tied to the nature and ideals of a particular society. But the aims promoted by NCLB are clearly far too narrow.
Surely, we should demand more from our schools than to educate people to be proficient in reading and mathematics. Too many highly proficient people commit fraud, pursue paths to success marked by greed, and care little about how their actions affect the lives of others. Some people argue that schools are best organized to accomplish academic goals and that we should charge other institutions with the task of pursuing the physical, moral, social, emotional, spiritual, and aesthetic aims that we associate with the whole child.
The schools would do a better job, these people maintain, if they were freed to focus on the job for which they were established. Those who make this argument have not considered the history of education. Public schools in the United States—as well as schools across different societies and historical eras—were established as much for moral and social reasons as for academic instruction.
Periodically since then, education thinkers have described and analyzed the multiple aims of education. Later in the century, educators trying to revive the progressive tradition advocated open education, which aimed to encourage creativity, invention, cooperation, and democratic participation in the classroom and in lifelong learning Silberman, Recently, I have suggested another aim: Great thinkers have associated happiness with such qualities as a rich intellectual life, rewarding human relationships, love of home and place, sound character, good parenting, spirituality, and a job that one loves.
We incorporate this aim into education not only by helping our students understand the components of happiness but also by making classrooms genuinely happy places.Autoblog brings you automotive news; expert reviews of cars, trucks, crossovers and SUVs; and pictures and video.
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EFFECTS OF ACADEMIC ANXIETY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS WITH This research paper explores the relationship between anxiety, student achievement, self-concept, and self-efficacy for students with and without disabilities.
Anxiety can have negative Summary. Social and academic anxiety can have a negative effect on a student’s. Watch the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Live. Get a degree view of the floats, balloons and performances, live from New York City.
The Concept of Anxiety (Danish: The Concept of Irony. It could mark a new beginning but that is not known for certain. Friedrich Schelling – Georg Hegel (–) Here there is no knowledge of good and evil etc., but the whole actuality of knowledge projects itself in anxiety as the enormous nothing of ignorance.